Instructions for Article Preparation for the 2019 APA

Only abstracts selected for oral presentation or participation in a panel will be expected to submit a paper by 31 July 2019.   Failure to submit may result in the oral presentation being switched to a poster presentation.

Manuscript Preparation:

The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.  The font used should be Times New Roman, 10 pt.

Manuscript Length:

Articles selected for oral presentations:  Research articles should be of 4,000-6,000 words with 75 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Articles for Keynote or Review Presentations:  The article is from 35,000 to 40,000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.

MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS:  Manuscripts submitted for research and review articles should be divided into the following sections:

  • Title Page
  • Structured Abstract
  • Text organization
  • Conclusion
  • List of abbreviations (if any)
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Figures/illustrations (if any)
  • Tables and captions (if any)
  • Supportive/supplementary material (if any)


The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations and question marks in titles. The title must be written in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.

Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’. Title, running title, by line correspondent footnote and key words should be written as presented in the original manuscript.

Title Page:

Title page should include paper title, author(s) full name and affiliation, corresponding author(s) names complete affiliation/address, along with phone, fax and email

Structured Abstract:

The abstract of an article should be its clear, concise and accurate summary, having no more than 250 words, and including the explicit sub-headings (as in-line or run-in headings in bold). Use of abbreviations should be avoided and the references should not be cited in the abstract. Ideally, each abstract should include the following sub-headings, but these may vary according to requirements of the article.

  • Background
  • Objective
  • Method
  • Results
  • Conclusion


6 to 8 keywords must be provided. Choose important and relevant keywords that researchers in your field will be searching for so that your paper will appear in a database search.

Text Organization:

The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the List of Abbreviations (if any), Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For review, the manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For Research Articles the manuscript should begin with the title page and abstract followed by the main text, which must be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate, Human and Animal Rights (if applicable), Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and References. The Keynote Article should mention any previous important recent and old reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review. The authors are advised to present and discuss their observations in brief. The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g. per se, et al., etc.

Section Headings:  should be numbered sequentially, left aligned and have the first letter capitalized, starting with the introduction. Sub-section headings however, should be in lower-case and italicized with their initials capitalized. They should be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, etc.

INTRODUCTION:  The Introduction section should include the background and aims of the research in a comprehensive manner.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This section provides details of the methodology used along with information on any previous efforts with corresponding references. Any details for further modifications and research should be included.

EXPERIMENTAL:  Repeated information should not be reported in the text of an article. A calculation section must include experimental data, facts and practical development from a theoretical perspective.

RESULTS:  Results should be precise.

DISCUSSION: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, and present reproducible procedure. Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided.

The Results and discussions may be presented individually or combined in a single section with short and informative headings.

CONCLUSION: A small paragraph summarizing the contents of the article, presenting the final outcome of the research or proposing further study on the subject, may be given at the end of the article under the Conclusion section.

Conflict of Interest:  Financial contributions and any potential conflict of interest must be clearly acknowledged under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest’. Authors must list the source(s) of funding for the study. This should be done for each author.

Acknowledgements:  All individuals listed as authors must have contributed substantially to the design, performance, analysis, or reporting of the work and are required to indicate their specific contribution. Anyone (individual/company/institution) who has substantially contributed to the study for important intellectual content or was involved in the in drafting or revising the manuscript must also be acknowledged.

Guest or honorary authorship based solely on position (e.g. research supervisor, departmental head) is discouraged.

References:  References must be listed in the numerical system (Vancouver). All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.



See below few examples of references listed in the correct Vancouver style:

Typical Paper Reference:
  • [1]  Krishnan P, Black TA, Grant NJ, Barr AG, Hogg EH, Jassal RS, Morgenstern K. Impact of changing soil moisture distribution on net ecosystem productivity of a boreal aspen forest during and following drought. Agric Forest Meteorol 2006; 139(3-4): 208-23.
  • [2]  Rodrigues MA, Pereira A, Cabanas JE, Dias L, Pires J, Arrobas M. Crops use-efficiency of nitrogen from manures permitted in organic farming. Eur J Agron 2006; 25(4): 328-35.
Typical Chapter Reference:
  • [3]  Jensen IB, Hodder RL, Dollhopf DJ. In: Wali MK, Ed. Effects of Surface Manipulation on the Hydrologic Balance of Surface Mined Lands. Ecology and Coal Resource Development, Pergamon Press, New York 1978; 754-61.
Book Reference:
  • [4]  Munshower FF. Disturbed land revegetation, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL., 1994; pp. 265.
Edited Book:
  • [5]  Santaniello V, Evenson RE, Zilberman D, Carlson GA. Eds. Agriculture and intellectual property rights: Economic, institutional, and implementation issues in biotechnology. CABI Publishing, 10 E 40th St., Suite 3203, New York, NY 10016, 2000.
Conference Paper:
  • [6]  Abbott K, Seymour J. Trapping the papaya fruit fly in north Queensland. Paper presented at the Australian Entomological Society Conference, Melbourne, September 20, 1997.
Conference Proceedings:
  • [7]  Goss K, Chisholm T, Graetz D, Noble I, Barson, M Australian Agronomy Conferences. Proc. 5th (Perth), 6th (Armidale) and 7th(Adelaide) Conferences, 1989, 1991 and 1993. In: Sustaining the agricultural resource base. Office of the Chief Scientist, Dept. of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, AGPS Canberra 1995.
Journal Article on the Internet:
  • [8]  Collinge DB, Kragh KM, Mikkelsen JD, Nielsen KK, Rasmussen U, Vad K. Plant chitinases. Plant J 1993 Jan, 3 (1), 31–40. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1993.t01-1-00999.x
Book/Monograph on the Internet:
  • [9]  Donaldson MS, Ed. Measuring the quality of health care [monograph on the internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 1999 [cited 2004 Oct 8]. Available from:
  • [10]  HeartCentreOnline [homepage on the Internet]. Boca Raton, FL: HeartCentreOnline, Inc.; c2000-2004 [updated 2004 May 23; cited 2004 Oct 15]. Available from:
Journal with Part/Supplement:

If a journal carries continuous pagination throughout the volume, then the issue number can be omitted

Issue with Supplement:
  • [11]  Bicknell RA, Koltunow AM. Understanding apomixes: recent advances and remaining conundrums. Plant Cell 2004; 16 (Suppl): S228-45.
Volume with Part:
  • [12]  Scholtz MT, Bidleman TF. Modelling of the long-term fate of pesticide residues in agricultural soils and their surface exchange with the atmosphere: Part II. Projected long-term fate of pesticide residues. Sci Total Environ 2007; 377(1 Pt 2): 61-80.
Issue with Part:
  • [13]  Bruselman E, Steurbaut W, Sonck B. Optimizing the application of entomopathogenic nematodes. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 2006; 71(3 Pt A); 701-5.
  • [14]  Spiering BA, Carter GA, inventors; Plant chlorophyll content imager with reference detection signals.United States patent US 20006114683. 2000 Sep.
  • [15]  Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view) , must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.

Some important points to remember:

  • All references must be complete and accurate.
  • If the number of authors exceeds six then et al will be used after three names (the term “et al.” should be in italics).
  • Online citations should include the date of access.
  • Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
  • Take special care of the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
  • Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and reference section.
  • Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
  • The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.

Appendices:  In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological details, use appendices, which can be a part of the article. An appendix must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 10 point fonts, 900 max. words per page).The information should be provided in a condensed form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.

Figures/Illustrations (if any):

The authors are expected to submit good quality figure(s) in PDF, PPT, MS Word, TIFF or JPEG versions, which, if required, should be improved yourself or by professional graphic designers of your organization/ country.

Illustrations must be provided according to the following guideline:

  • Illustrations should be embedded in the text file and must be numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include only a single illustration which should be cropped to minimize the amount of space occupied by the illustration.
  • If a figure is in separate parts, all parts of the figure must be provided in a single composite illustration file.
  • Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.
Scaling/Resolution:  Line Art image type is normally an image based on lines and text. It does not contain tonal or shaded areas. The preferred file format should be TIFF or EPS, with the color mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.

Halftone image type is a continuous tone photograph containing no text. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination image type is an image containing halftone  text or line art elements. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.


Illustrations may be submitted in the following file formats:

  • Illustrator
  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
  • PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF
  • JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)
  • BMP
  • CDX (ChemDraw)
  • TGF (ISISDraw)

For TIFF or EPS figures with considerably large file size restricting the file size in online submissions is advisable. Authors may therefore convert to JPEG format before submission as this results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a lossy format. However, in order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality.

Zipit or Stuffit tools should not be used to compress files prior to submission as the resulting compression through these tools is always negligible.

Please refrain from supplying:

  1. Graphics embedded in word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
  2. Optimized files optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) because of the low resolution.
  3. Files with too low a resolution.
  4. Graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Technical requirements for graphic/ figure submissions.


Width = 8.5 inches (In-between the required size)

Height = 11 inches (In-between the required size)

Pixels/Inches = 300 (minimum dpi)

All figures should be in vector scale (except half tone, photograph.)